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Chapters

HISTORY OF THE TRIPLE EXISTENCE: MATTER, LIFE, AND THOUGHT

by William McGaughey

Introduction

Chapter 1 Origin of the Cosmos: The big bang and quarks (p. 5) - events of the first three minutes (p. 8) - cosmic stories (p. 10) - the age of radiation (p. 11) - chemical structures (p. 14) - star formation (p. 15) - main-sequence stars (p. 18) - red giants (p. 21) - white dwarfs and neutron stars (p. 23) - binary stars, pulsars, and black holes (p. 25) - the size of stars and elemental weights (p. 26) - how matter is distributed in space (p. 28) - dark matter and dark energy (p. 30) - knowing events on this level of magnitude (p. 32) - in the larger regions of space (p. 34)

Chapter 2 The Earth and Solar System: The solar system (p. 39) - how the solar system was created (p. 43) - the eight planets (p. 47) - how the earth’s moon was created (p. 50) - the earth’s formation (p. 52) - the earth’s chemical composition (p. 53) - chemistry of the surface and interior rock (p. 55) - the presence of water (p. 57) - shifting land masses (p. 60) - the supercontinents (p. 62) - periods of warming and glaciation (p. 65) - the impact of life on geological processes (p. 66) - release of oxygen (p. 67) - residue of plant and animal life (p. 69) - mass extinctions and other threats (p. 71) - recent temperature cycles (p. 72) - the present arrangement of water and land on the earth’s surface (p. 74)

Chapter 3 Life Appears on Earth: Introduction (p. 77) - life’s characteristics (p. 77) - how life might have begun (p. 79) - DNA, RNA, amino acids, and proteins (p. 82) - prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells (p. 84) - oxygen and iron (p. 86) - biological classifications (p. 88) - geological periods (p. 90) - the pre-Cambrian period (p. 90) - the Cambrian explosion (p. 92) - the Ordovician, Silurian, and Devonian periods (p. 93) - the Carboniferous period (p. 97) - the Permian period and extinction (p. 99) - the Triassic period (p. 101) - the age of dinosaurs (p. 104) - the Cretaceous period (p. 107) - the ascent of mammals (p. 111) - the last thirty million years (p. 116)

Chapter 4 The Human Species Appears: A search for our ancestors (p. 121) - our primate relatives (p. 123) - some of our pre-human ancestors (p. 128) - ancestors from the period between 7 million and 4 million years ago (p. 130) - Australopithecus (p. 131) - Homo habilis (p. 133) - Homo erectus (p. 135) - Homo heidelbergensis (p. 137) - Neanderthals (p. 139) - Homo sapiens (p. 140) - our African origin (p. 142) - brain size as an indicator of human capability (p. 143) - Homo sapiens becomes dispersed to other parts of the world (p. 146) - three cultures in Europe (p. 147) - other migrations (p. 149) - what DNA says of racial and ethnic relationships (p. 150) - the three races and various ethnicities (p. 153) - changes within the human population in historical times (p. 155)

Chapter 5 The Beginning of Human Culture and Thought: Perishable and imperishable thought (p. 161) - stone tools (p. 162) - stone-tipped spears (p. 164) - clothing, shelter, and decorative ornaments (p. 166) - expressive art (p. 168) - paleolithic culture (p. 168) - life in hunter/ gatherer societies (p. 171) - neolithic culture (p. 173) - glimpses of Neolithic life in western Europe (p. 176) - domesticated animals (p. 179) - the beginning of agriculture (p. 180) - intervention of human thought in the evolution of plant and animal species (p. 184) - intimations of religion (p. 185) - oral culture (p. 189) - the words of languages (p. 190) - the human body molding speech (p. 192) - languages of the world (p. 194)

Chapter 6 The First Epoch of Civilization: Development of Imperial Government: Introduction (p. 205) - when and where the first civilized societies appeared (p. 207) - emergence of a new type of community (p. 211) - schemes of social stratification (p. 214) - ideographic writing (p. 215) - monarchies (p. 218) - the first empires: Egypt and Sumer (p. 220) - mideastern empires of the 2nd millennium B.C. (p. 223) - nomadic invasions (p. 224) - military struggles in the middle east (p. 226) - Rome’s emergence as a world power (p. 229) - Hunnish and Scandinavian eruptions (p. 235) - continuation of the Roman empire in the east (p. 237) - the Parthian, Kushan, and Sasanian empires (p. 241) - India (p. 245) - China (p. 250) - southeast and east Asia (p. 258) - pre-Columbian America (p. 262) - planting the seeds of knowledge (p. 264) - today’s largest nations (p. 267)

Chapter 7 The Second Epoch of Civilization: Development of World Religion: Introduction (p. 269) - three stages in religion (p. 270) - a shift in the type of worship (p. 272) - the introduction of alphabetic writing (p. 274) - philosophers and prophets of the Axial Age (p. 279) - the monotheism of Ikhnaton and Moses (p. 285) - Jews under foreign rule (p. 287) - early Christianity (p. 290) - the Greek component of this religion (p. 293) - theological controversies (p. 297) - development of the western church (p. 299) - the power of the Roman church (p. 301) - orthodox Christianity (p. 306) - the later Persian religions (p. 310) - the religion of Islam (p. 312) - Islamic empires (p. 318) - the Hindu and Buddhist religions (p. 323) - the spread of Indian religion to lands outside India (p. 330) - religion in southeast and east Asia (p. 332) - Lao-tse and Confucius (p. 335) - institutional religion today (p. 337) - the impact of alphabetic writing on world religion and its culture (p. 338) - an other-worldly tendency (p. 342)

Chapter 8 The Third Epoch of Civilization: Development of Commerce and Education: Introduction (p. 343) - thawing religious belief (p. 344) - the seeing revolution (p. 345) - the introduction of printing (p. 349) - the beginning of commercial organization in Europe (p. 352) - Luther’s protest (p. 357) - the nexus between wealth and the arts (p. 360) - commercial rivalry between the north Atlantic nations (p. 362) - colonial trade (p. 370) - the rise of machines (p. 374) - trade competition in an industrial age (p. 379) - industrial America (p. 381) - the labor movement (p. 385) - social stratification (p. 388) - universal education (p. 391) - literary and artistic style (p. 397) - a new mode of selling (p. 399) - newspapers as vehicles for selling (p. 401) - yielding to the machine (p. 404) - debt-driven growth (p. 408) - the unraveling of western colonialism (p. 410) - materialism and disintegration (p. 412) - current size of national economies (p. 414)

Chapter 9 The Fourth Epoch of Civilization: Development of News and Entertainment: Introduction (p. 415) - a weight lifted from our shoulders (p. 416) - entertainment up until the 20th century (p. 417) - amateur and professional sports (p. 421) - racially styled music (p. 427) - productions on the Broadway stage (p. 433) - communication technology transforms entertainment (p. 435) - (a) photography (p. 436) - (b) sound recordings (p. 436) - (c) motion pictures (p. 437) - (d) radio (p. 438) - (e) television (p. 439) - the movies (p. 442) - radio broadcasting (p. 449) - television (p. 453) - sports broadcasts (p. 459) - entertainment goes international (p. 461) - gambling (p. 463) - narrowcasting (p. 466) - computer-generated entertainment (p. 467) - new ideals in the entertainment age (p. 469)

Chapter 10 The Fifth Epoch of Civilization, Development of Computers: Introduction (p. 475) - the early days (p. 475) - mainframe computers (p. 478) - the emergence of Silicon Valley (p. 484) - microcomputers (p. 486 - Microsoft and the software business (p. 489) - the move to computer networks (p. 491) - CompuServe and The Source (p.492) - other computer networks (p. 493) - genesis of America OnLine (AOL) (p. 495) - Prodigy (p. 498) - moving to a new model of service (p. 499) - the Internet (p. 500) - web browsers and search engines (p. 504) - turn-of-the-millennium excitement (p. 505) - Google and Yahoo! (p. 506) - other heavily-trafficked sites (p. 508) - wireless devices (p. 512) - knowledge production (p. 515) - Watson and colleagues (p. 519) - history’s wrecking ball (p. 522)

Chapter 11 Intelligent Machine Life: Imagining an artificial human being (p. 525) - the first moves toward artificial intelligence (p. 526) - how Artificial Intelligence study began (p. 528) - putting this knowledge to work (p. 530) - Ray Kurzweil: prophet of Artificial Intelligence (p. 532) - three approaches to human cognition (p. 534) - reverse engineering the brain (p. 538) - robots (p. 544) - nano-sized robots (p. 548) - Will robots survive humanity? (p. 554) - no assurance that humanity will make the right decisions (p. 557) - robots to the rescue (p. 560)

Appendix: Additional graphics and tables (p. 565) - Western people’s view of the world at different times in history p. 565 - Some devices of written communication (p. 567) - Supplemental tables (p. 570) - Diagram of differentiating institutions (p. 574) - Progress of values in the history of civilization (p. 577) - different definitions of good (p. 577) - different cultural heroes (p. 577) - holidays in the different epochs (p. 579) - Some patterns in world history that may help to predict the future (p. 581) - On Big History and the Five Epochs of Civilization (p. 592) - How the Triple Existence exists (p. 597) - An Alternative Scheme of Thresholds and Historical Turning Points (p. 601) - Summary of how the Three Types of Being emerged in Big History (p. 608)

Bibliography
Index

 

List of tables

table 1.1 Significant events after the Big Bang (13.798 billion years ago) (p. 9)
table 1.2 Periodic table of elements (in appendix) (p. 570)
table 1.3 Chemical elements from hydrogen to iron (in appendix) (p. 571)

table 2.1 Geological periods: eons and eras (p. 58)
table 2.2 Earth’s largest water and land surfaces by area (p. 75)

table 3.1 Cladogram of life (p. 89)
table 3.2 Phanerozoic eras and periods (p. 91)
table 3.3 Cenozoic periods and epochs (p. 112)

table 4.1 Mammal lineages leading to Homo sapiens (p. 125)
table 4.2 When other primates branched off from Homo sapiens (p. 127)
table 4.3 Human population by year (p. 156)
table 4.4 Percentages of world population by region and date (p. 158)

table 5.1 A chronology of prehistoric cultures (p. 169)
table 5.2 Prehistoric cultures in Europe (p. 169)
table 5.3 Branches of the world’s languages (p. 198)
table 5.4 Languages spoken by the most people (p. 202)

table 6.1 The three largest cities in the world throughout history (p. 210)
table 6.2 Dynasties of ancient Egypt (p. 221)
table 6.3 Dynasties of the Roman empire (p. 233)
table 6.4 Chinese imperial dynasties ( p. 253)
table 6.5 Largest nations by population and territory in 2012 (p. 267)

table 7.1 Philosophers, prophets, and theologians (p. 280)
table 7.2 Religious affiliation in 2011 by number of adherents (p. 337)
table 7.3 The Lord’s prayer (in appendix) (p. 572)
table 7.4 The Nicene creed (in appendix) (p. 573)

table 8.1 Some Renaissance personalities (p. 348)
table 8.2 World energy production by type of energy (p. 378)
table 8.3 Employment by industry in the United States, 1800-2010 (p. 405)
table 8.4 National income by nation, 2000 and 2011 (p. 414)

table 9.1 Top ten films by box-office receipts (p. 446)
table 9.2 Radios in use in the United States, 1922 to 1975 (p. 451)
table 9.3 Television sets in use in the United States, 1947 to 1975 (p. 454)

table 10.1 Advances in computer switching speed, 1939 to 1990 (p. 483)

appendix 1 Big History’s time disparity (p. 593)
appendix 2 Scheme of the five epochs of civilization (p. 594)

 

List of Illustrations

The list of illustrations shows the number of the page where the named illustration will appear in the published book.

Chapter 1

electromagnetic spectrum - 17
Hertzsprung-Russell diagram - 19
blue nebula in space - 30
1890s telescope Red House Observatory, Geneva New York - 32
Whirlpool galaxy Big Dipper constellation - 35
dish antenna - 37

Chapter 2

the sun - 42
Brooks comet #2 observed in 1886- 47
the earth - 48
Jupiter and Saturn - 49
the moon photographed from Lick observatory, California - 51
earth’s crust - 55
supercontinent Pangaea existed on earth 200-300 million years ago - 64
scene in Monument Valley (Utah) - 70

Chapter 3

DNA molecule the double-helix structure - 83
prokaryotic cell from Armand Delsemme, Our Cosmic Origins, Cambridge University Press, 1998 - 84
eukaryotic cell from Armand Delsemme, Our Cosmic Origins - 85
early Paleozoic scene - 94
swamp forest of the carboniferous age - 98
eggs hatching dinosaur eggs - 98
ceratite mollusca phylum, Triassic period - 99
pelycosaur reptile of Permian age - 100
brontosaurus reptile of Jurassic period - 105
archaeopteryx earliest bird, late Jurassic period - 106
crustacean subphylum of Arthropod - 109
tyrannosaurus rex reptile of Cretaceous period - 110
entelodont (giant pig) Oligocene mammal - 115
hairy mammoth early Pleistocene mammal - 118

Chapter 4

scheme of human evolution - 122
chimpanzee - 127
Australopithecus Africanus - 131
Cro-Magnon man ca. 41,000 B.C. - 140
Chinese woman from east Asia - 153
Negro man from equatorial Africa - 153
Australoid man from Australia - 154
Amerindian woman from the Americas - 154
Nordic man from northern Europe - 154
Berber man from north Africa, Mediterranean region - 155

Chapter 5

Palaeolithic chopping tool - 162
Mousterian Age artifacts stone points - 164
flint arrowheads - 164
primitive throwing stick with reindeer horn - 165
painting from cave at Altamira, Spain from Paleolithic period - 168
Sioux Indians hunting mythical moose - 172
Stonehenge megalith near Salisbury, England from third millennium B.C. - 174
Neolithic Swiss lake dwelling drawing in Déchelett’s Manuel de Archéologie - 177
pottery from lake dwelling - 178
Egyptian ploughing and sowing from a papyrus drawing - 181
Pueblo women grinding corn - 183
altar to Yan a religion of Burma - 186
little-dipper constellation includes Polaris, the North Star - 187

Chapter 6

Roman aqueduct near Nîmes, France built by emperor Antoninus Pius - 206
ancient Egyptian brick-making from Thebes - 212
Sumerian warriors in phalanx from Sumerian stone carving - 218
Assyrian king and chief minister - 219
pharaoh Khafra (Chephren) reigned 2558-2532 B.C. - 222
map of the fertile crescent - 225
Assyrian winged bull repellant of evil, guardian of the realm - 226
Alexander the Great 356-323 B.C. - 227
Greek emperor Seleucus I (Nicator) 365-281 B.C. from Tetradrachm coin - 228
Roman scene beneath statute of Romulus and Remus being suckled by a wolf - 230
Julius Caesar 100-44 B.C. Vatican Museum - 231
Augustus Caesar (Octavian) 63 B.C.-14 A.D. Vatican Museum - 232
Roman empire during Trajan’s reign (a map) - 234
Viking boat found in burial mound at Gokstad, Norway - 237
Hagia Sophia church in Constantinople later became a mosque - 238
Persian emperor Ardeshir 180-242 A.D. founder of Sasanian empire - 243
Varanhran receiving submission of the Segestani (Croatians) Persian emperor Bahram II, reigned 274-293 A.D. - 244
mosque of Aurangzeb at Benares, India Mogul emperor 1618-1707 - 250
Tu Fu takes family on a journey T’ang dynasty poet, lived 712-770 A.D. - 255
Temple of Heaven in Beijing - 257
Shan (Burmese) girl - 259
Mayan idol at Copán in Honduras - 263
View of Machu Picchu (Peru) - 264

Chapter 7

Egyptian drawing on papyrus - 271
statue of goddess Athene in the Parthenon - 272
the judgment of the dead weighing of deceased’s heart in the scales of truth - 273
pharaoh Ikhnaton (also Akhenaton or Amenhotep IV) reigned 1375-1358 B.C. - 285
Jesus on the cross 6 B.C.- 29 A.D. - 290
Socrates philosopher lived 469-399 B.C. National Museum, Naples - 294
Plato philosopher lived 427-347 B.C. National Museum, Naples - 294
face of Jesus Sinai Jesus - 297
symbols of spiritual and temporal power St. Peter giving Pope Leo III the stola and Charlemagne the banner of Rome, 9th century mosaic in the Vatican - 302
investiture of a bishop a king giving the crosier to bishop, 10th century - 303
Cologne cathedral in Germany constructed 11th through 19th centuries - 305
Byzantine madonna and child - 307
Kazan cathedral, Red Square, Moscow - 308
Kremlin in Moscow from a photograph - 310
coin of Persian emperor Shahpuhr - 310
camel caravan - 313
Ka’bah shrine in Mecca - 314
the muezzin from painting by Jean Leon Gerome - 317
Santiago the Moorslayer St. James, legendary son of Christ’s disciple, seen in 9th century battle in Spain - 320
Nadir Shah 1688-1747 Persian invader of India - 321
Buddha 563-483 B.C. - 325
Brahma Hindu god of creation - 328
Ganesha Hindu divine patron of arts and sciences - 329
Hariti 6th Century A.D. Buddhist protector of children, Chinese Turkestan - 331
Tibetan prayer wheel device for automatic praying - 331
Buddha hall Ching-t’ung Lu-ssu - 332
Confucius 551-479 B.C. - 336
alphabetic writing, several languages - 338
Islamic greeting card - 341
an early Christian saint - 342

Chapter 8

Petrarch (Francesco Petrarca) 1304-1374 from portrait by S. Tofanelli - 346
globe of Martin Behaim (1492) German cartographer 1459-1507 - 349
printing press - 350
King Richard I (the Lionhearted) of England 1157-1199 - 354
Martin Luther 1483-1546 - 358
St. Ignatius Loyola 1491-1556 after a painting by Rubens - 359
15th Century university from Geiger’s Renaissance und Humanismus - 362
Christ the Redeemer of the Andes erected in 1904 between Chile and Argentina - 363
Christopher Columbus 1451-1506 after the Capriolo portrait - 364
Queen Elizabeth I of England 1533-1603 the Ermine portrait - 365
16th Century sea battle between Spanish and English vessels - 366
King Louis XIV of France 1638-1715 the “Sun King” - 370
George Washington 1732-1799 first President of the United States - 372
Isaac Newton 1642-1727 - 375
Galileo Galilei 1564-1642 - 376
Richard Trevithick’s locomotive first operated in 1804 - 377
on the shop floor - 379
Thomas Edison 1847-1931 American inventor - 382
Model T Ford automobile built between 1908 and 1927 - 383
at the stock exchange - 384
May Day in Tiananmen Square 2000 photograph, picture of Sun Yat-sen - 387
Matthew Arnold 1822-1888 British educator - 393
Czar Peter the Great of Russia 1672-1725 painting by Karol de Moor - 395
Balliol college, Oxford - 396
William Shakespeare 1564-1616 English playwright and poet - 399
a news reporter drawing by W.D. Smedley - 402
in line at the tool room - 404
“nude descending a staircase” by Marcel Duchamp exhibited in 1913 “Armory Show” in New York City - 412
Kaiser Wilhelm of Germany 1859-1941 - 413

Chapter 9

1926 clothing style Vogue magazine in February 1, 1926 From Only Yesterday by Frederick Lewis Allen - 417
Colosseum in Rome built in 80 A.D., from a photograph - 418
Crystal Palace in London built for Great Exhibition of 1851 - 419
Kentucky Derby winner late 19th century - 421
baseball players (batter and catcher) - 424
basketball players - 426
Greek Olympic wrestlers - 426
Elvis Presley singer 1935-1977 - 430
Edison’s phonograph player - 436
Eadweard Muybridge horse photography “The Horse in Motion”, 1878 - 437
celluloid film strip - 438
Fred Ott’s Sneeze taken in 1894 by Edison movie studio - 442
poster for The Glenn Miller Story 1954 American film - 445
Marilyn Monroe film star 1926-1962 - 449
radio antenna - 450
watching television in early 1950s - 453
Lucille Ball television comedienne starring in the 1950s show “I Love Lucy” - 455
Minnesota Twins victory celebration after World Series victory in 1987 - 460
“down on my luck” - a casino cashout voucher - 463
Shooting Star casino sign Ojibway-owned casino in Mahnomen, Minnesota - 465
pass to Disneyland for author’s father in 1957 - 466

Chapter 10

Charles Babbage’s “Analytical Engine” computer first described in 1837 - 477
IBM-type computer punch card 80-column card with marked columns - 480
printed circuit board - 486
computer with monitor and keyboard - 488
data center and server room - 492
on-line shopping - 507
some logos of popular websites - 509
Apple iPAD touchscreen - 513
a computer hard drive - 515
face with data - 520
office worker at computer monitor - 522

Chapter 11

diagram of a human neuron - 536
neural network - 539
parts of the brain - 540
brain waves - 543
robotic arm - 545
the grim reaper “Death on a pale horse” The Doré Bible Gallery by Gustave Doré - 558
view of earth from the moon from a photograph - 560

 

 

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